Kiến thức cơ bản cho chiếu sáng đô thị

Chiếu sáng đô thị luôn là vấn đề được nhiều người quan tâm. Mọi người luôn tìm cách để có được mức ánh sáng tốt nhất và tiết kiệm được điện năng nhất.

Kiến thức cơ bản cho chiếu sáng đô thị

Kiến thức cơ bản cho chiếu sáng đô thị sẽ giúp các bạn nắm rõ các thông tin như: chỉ số hoàn màu, các định luật quang học, các loại công thức khuếch tán, truyền xạ, sự hấp thụ ánh sáng, độ tương phản, độ chóa cũng như các đại lượng về chiếu sáng. Cùng Srigel tìm hiểu chi tiết qua bài viết này nhé!

chiếu sáng đô thị

Bảng mô tả ứng dụng chỉ số hoàn màu

Sau đây là bảng chỉ số hoàn màu mà các bạn có thể tham khảo:

Chỉ số hoàn màuChất lượng nhìn màuCông việc ứng dụng
CRI > 90CaoCông việc cần sự chính xác ví dụ: kiểm tra in, nhộm màu, xưởng vẽ…
80 < CRI < 90CaoCông việc cần đánh giá màu đúng ví dụ: chiếu sáng trưng bày, khách sạn 4-5 sao
60 < CRI <80Trung bìnhCần phân biệt màu tương đối các nhà xưởng – văn phòng
40 < CRI < 60ThấpCông việc không cần nhiều sự phân biệt màu sắc: kho, bãi…
20 < CRI < 40ThấpCông việc không cần phân biệt màu sắc như đèn đường,…

Định luật quang học và ứng dụng trong kỹ thuật chiếu sáng.

 1.  Sự phản xạ.

  • Phản xạ đều: Góc tới bằng góc phản xạ hệ số phản xạ đều có công thức: ρpxdpxd / Φ< 1

Trong đó:

    • Φpxd : quang thông phản xạ
    • Φi  : quang thông tới
  • Phản xạ khuếch tán.

Hiện tượng này không tuân theo hiện tượng quang. Nó có đặc điểm là khi tia sáng chiếu tới bề mặt phản xạ khuếch tán, các tia sáng phản xạ sẽ đi theo nhiều hướng khác nhau.

 Hệ số phản xạ khuếch tán có công thức:  ρpxkt= Φpkxt / Φ< 1

Trong đó:

    • Φpkxt : quang thông phản xạ
    • Φi  : quang thông tới

Trong thực tế trên bề mặt vật phản xạ đều có phản xạ đều và phản xạ khuếch tán nên.

            ρpx = ρpxd + ρpxkt = Φpxd + Φpxkt / Φ<1

   2. Truyền xạ.

  • Truyền xạ đều.

Tia sáng ra khỏi vật liệu dạng tấm đồng nhất song song với tia tới. Định luật này ứng dụng để chế tạo các bộ phận quay bóng đèn trong suốt.

    Công thức của truyền xạ đều: ρtxd = Φtxd / Φ<1   

  • Sự truyền xạ khuyết tán.

Là tia sáng tới và tia sáng ra khỏi tấm vật liệu có hướng khác nhau. Có 3 loại khuyết tán: khuếch tán đều, khuếch tán hổn hợp, phân tán. Ứng dụng để làm bóng đèn giảm chói như huỳnh quang….

 Công thức:  ρtxkt = Φtxkt / Φi <1

    3. Sự khúc xạ:

Sự khúc xạ là sự thay đổi hướng của tia sáng đi qua các tiết diện lăng kính.

    4. Sự hấp thụ:

Khi ánh sáng chiếu vào bất cứ vật nào cũng bị hấp thụ một phần năng lượng. Các vật liệu khác nhau dưới đây là bảng hấp thụ ánh sáng của các vật liệu:

 
Vật liệuHệ số hấp thụ
Pha lê

Thủy tinh

Thủy tinh vàng nhạt

Thủy tinh xanh nhạt

Thủy tinh nhám

Nhựa trong

Thủy tinh sữa

Thủy tinh mờ

Thủy tinh vàng

Thủy tinh vàng đậm

5 – 12%

10 – 20%

15 – 20%

15 – 25%

15 – 30%

15 – 40%

15 – 4%

15 – 30%

15 – 60%

15 – 60%

 5. Độ Tương Phản

Ví dụ: Một tờ giấy đen đặt trên mặt bàn màu đen ta sẽ không nhìn thấy, trái lại nếu tờ giấy màu trắng trên mặt bàn màu đen thì ta sẽ thấy ngay.

Do độ chói của tờ giấy trắng và mặt bàn là khác nhau nên người ta định nghĩa độ tương phản, ký hiệu: C

C = Lo– Lg / Lg

Trong đó:       C = Độ tương phản

Lo = Độ chói của vật (tờ giấy)

Lg= Độ chói của vật (mặt bàn)

6. Chói Lóa

Là hiện tượng mất khả năng nhìn tạm thời khi chúng ta nhìn vào nguồn sáng.

Ví dụ: Nhìn vào đèn pha xe hơi… hiện tượng này gây mất an toàn trong giao thông hay trong làm việc.

Độ chói nhỏ nhất để mắt có thể nhìn thấy là:    L= 10-3cd/m2

Còn độ chói bắt đầu gây ra lóa mắt là:   5.000 cd/m2

Trog tiêu chuẩn đánh giá chất lượng đèn đường có tiêu chí này.

7. Chỉ Số Tiện Nghi G

Là chỉ số để đánh giá mức độ chói lóa G= ISL+0,97Lg(Ltb)+4,41Lg(h)-1.46Lg(p)

Trong đó:

ISL: là chỉ số của đèn do nhà cung cấp cho, ISL có giá trị từ 3÷6

(ISL=13.84-3.31Lg(L80)+1.3Lg(I80/I88)0,5-0,08Lg(I80/I88)+1.29Lg(F))

F = Diện tích phát sáng quang sát từ góc 76o

Lg= Độ chói trung bình mặt đường

h= Độ cao đèn

p= Số đèn có trên 1km đường

  Nếu:    G = 1 Chói lóa quá mức cho phép

G = 4 Chói lóa ở mức cho phép

G = 9 Không chói lóa

Tiêu chuẩn TCXDVN 259:2001 quy định G≥ 4, chỉ xét chói lóa khi 20> h >5 và 100>p>20

8. Độ sáng (độ trưng)

Độ sáng tại một điểm nào đó của vật có diện tích S là tỷ số R = dΦ/ dS
Độ sáng khác độ rọi ở chỗ độ rọi là số đo của nơi được ánh sáng chiếu vào còn độ sáng là số đo của bề mặt phát sáng của vật phát sáng.

9. Độ chói

Độ chói ký hiệu là L
Công thức: L = dI / (dS.cosα)

Độ chói phụ thuộc vào cường độ sáng và góc nhìn trên diện tích của vật phát sáng 
cũng như phụ thuộc vào tính chất phản

quang của bề mặt.

Độ chói trung bình của mặt đường là tiêu chuẩn đầu tiên để đánh giá chất lượng của chiếu sáng đường phố.

Đơn vị đo độ chói là Cd/m2. (Candela/ mét vuông)

Độ chói của một số bề mặt như sau:

– Bề mặt đèn huỳnh quang: 5.0000 — 15.0000 cd/m2

– Bề mặt đường nhựa chiếu sáng với độ roi 30 lux sẽ cho độ chói 2cd/m2

                                ứng dụng kỹ thuật chiếu sáng

10. Nhiệt độ màu

Đơn vị đo là Kelvin (K) biểu thị màu sắc của ánh sáng.
2500K – 3000K               Màu đèn sợi đốt, lúc mặt trời lặn.
4500K – 5000K               Ánh sáng ban ngày, không mây.
6000K – 10.000K            Ánh sáng khi trời nhiều mây (ánh sáng lạnh)

11. Chỉ số hoàn màu

Kí hiệu : CRI  là sự so sánh độ trung thực màu sắc của các nguồn ánh sáng với mặt trời.
Thang chia thay đổi từ 0-100, nguồn sáng có CRI tiến ngần đến mức 100 tức là rất trung thực ngần như ánh sáng mặt trời.
Các xưởng in cần CRI >= 90
Chỉ số hoàn màu và độ sáng của nguồn sáng giúp giảm đi tỷ lệ hàng lỗi trong sản 
xuất.

Khái niệm cơ bản và các đại lượng chiếu sáng

Ánh sáng nhìn thấy là một dạng năng lượng điện từ được truyền trong không gian dưới dạng sóng. Ánh sáng nhìn thấy được có bước sóng từ 380 nm – 780 nm.

1. Quang thông

Quang thông là đại lượng thể hiện phần năng lượng bức xạ thành ánh sáng của một vật phát sáng.
Quang thông có đơn vị đo là lumen.
Ký hiệu của quang thông: Φ
Ví dụ : Toàn bộ công suất 1W khi bức xạ thành ánh sáng hoàn toàn sẽ cho quang thông 638lm.

 2. Quang hiệu

Quang hiệu là tỷ số giữa quang thông và công suất tiêu thụ có cùng nguồn sáng.
Quang hiệu có đơn vị là lumen/watt (lm/W)
Ký hiệu của quang hiệu:  ᶯ (ê-ta)

3. Cườg độ sáng

  • Góc khối
Góc khối là góc trong không gian ba chiều đặc trưng cho góc nhìn.
Gốc khối có đơn vị là steradian
Ký hiệu: Ω (omega).
    cường độ ánh sáng
  • Cường độ sáng
Cường độ sáng là lượng quang thông do một nguồn sáng phát ra trong phạm vi một đơn vị góc khối, theo một hướng xác định
Cường độ sáng có đơn vị là Candela (Cd)
1Cd = 1 lm/Sr
Ký hiệu là I
I = Quang thông / Góc khối.

4. Độ rọi

Độ rọi là lượng quang thông chiếu tới một đơn vị diện tích bề mặt

Độ rọi có đơn vị tinh bằng lux  (lx)

1 lx = 1 lm/m2

Ký hiệu là E

E = Quang thông / Diện tích chiếu sáng
độ rọi

5.Định luật tỷ lệ nghịch bình phương

E = cos  *  I/r.r
Độ rọi của một điểm nào đó phụ thuộc vào khoảng cách và góc nghiêng

Địa chỉ mua đèn chiếu sáng đô thị

Srigel không chỉ là địa chỉ uy tín mà khách hàng có thể tìm mua các loại đèn chiếu sáng độ thị. Chúng tôi còn kinh doanh các loại đen led nhà xưởng, đèn pha và các loại năng lượng mặt trời. Không những thế Srigel còn là đơn vị sản xuất đèn led pha chất lượng cao mà khách hàng có thể tin tường.

đè chiếu sáng độ thị

Khách hàng liên hệ Srigel theo địa chỉ sau để được tư vấn về các loại đèn chiếu sáng độ thị cũng như những loại đèn khác mà chúng tôi cung cấp trên thị trường:

  • Hotline: 0911 400 770
  • Email: srigel.com.vn@gmail.com
  • Website:  www.srigel.com.vn
  • Địa chỉ: Số 526 – 528 Xô Viết Nghệ Tĩnh, P. 25, Q. Bình Thạnh

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